The prerequisites of prayer are:
- Ritual impurity (hadath) has been removed by ablution or a full body wash.
- Filth (najâsat - substances which Islam prescribes as filthy) has been removed from the body, clothes and place of prayer.
- The color of the skin of those areas one is not allowed to show publicly has been covered: all the body except the face and hands for the woman, everything between the navel to below the knee for the man.
- One is facing in the direction of the prayer (qibla).
- The prescribed prayer time has entered.
- One has the intention of the prayer.
- Proscription (beginning the prayer by saying "Allahu’akbar".)
Ablution has 4 obligations:
- Washing (make the water flow on) the face (from the hairline to the chin and from ear to ear), except inside the eyes or the skin under a thick beard that is not seen at normal conversation length.
- Washing the hands and lower arms to above the elbow.
- Washing the feet to above the ankles.
- Wiping (make water touch) 1/4 of the head. Note: One must remove all obstacles for the water to reach (e.g. tight rings, mucus, make-up.)
Ablution described with merits and etiquettes:
- Intention of ablution for the sake of Allah, so that one may have credit.
- Say “bismillaahirraHmaanirraHiim.”
- Wash the hands 3 times.
- Rinse the mouth 3 times, then the nose 3 times.
- Use the siwaak (branch of a kind of tree) to clean the teeth with rinsing the mouth.
- Wash the face 3 times.
- Wash right hand and arm 3 times, then the left.
- Wipe all of the head, the ears, and the neck one time.
- Wash the right foot 3 times, then the left.
- In step 6, 7 and 9 use your fingers to wash between the toes, fingers and inside the beard.
- Perform the ablution without interrupting activities.
- Avoid idle talk.
- To not waste water, especially in the moske.
Causes of minor ritual impurity (things that invalidate ones ablution)
- EVERYTHING excreted from the front and rear organs, even air or a worm.
- Vomiting the amount of a mouthful unless it is phlegm.
- Blood or pus flowing out of a wound to a place required to wash in the full body wash (ghusl) (the skin, hair, mouth, inside the soft part of the nose, not inside the eyes.) Exempted are: bleeding from a wound in the mouth itself that does not make the spit red or thick black blood coming down from the head into the mouth or nose.
- Sleeping, unless one is sitting firmly on one's seat, thus preventing the exit of air.
- Fainting, going crazy, or having an epileptic fit (without exceptions.)
- Laughter loud enough for others to hear it during a prayer that has bowing and prostration, unless one is a child.
- Intense sexual contact breaks the ablution', that is, when a man and woman physically rub their private parts on each other.