Thursday, January 06, 2005

Useful Extra Information for Pilgrimage

Some important issues before leaving

  • To ask permission from one's debitors who's debt is due is a duty.
  • To be generous in providing for one's dependents before leaving.
  • To reduce unnecessary talk to the minimum.
  • To avoid getting najis filth on one's body and clothes as much as one can.
  • To remain in the state of ritual purity (having wudu' and ghusl.)
  • To pray two subsets in one's regular masjid before leaving.
  • To give some charity to the poor before leaving.
  • To ask those muslims whom one has wronged for forgiveness.
  • To say goodbye to people one knows, and ask for peoples supplication.

Before showering for Ihram it is good to:

  • Cut one's nails.
  • Trim one's mustage.
  • Removing pubic hair and armpit hair.
  • Have intimacy with one's partner if possible.

Take to avoid the following common sins:

  • Arguing with others (however, one must still order people to do their obligations, if they are slacking, and to avoid sins)
  • Talking about sex or flirting with the opposite sex, even one's wife.
  • Take care to avoid backbiting, which is to say something about an absent muslim that he wouldn't like to be said.
  • To avoid namiimah, which is to spread rumours among muslims that result in hatred between them, even if it is true.

Important matters of the heart

  • One should keep constantly in mind that everything happens by the Will of Allah, and avoid both despair and overconfidence. One should ask Allah for help in everything, even if it is just in the heart.
  • One should take particular care to not spend a moment on anything but worship in Mount Arafah.
  • One should cry over one's sins and sincerely repent as much as one can. If one can't cry, or is not aware of any sins, then one should cry over that, as this is among the greates of calamities.
  • One should fill one's heart with love and thankfulness to Allah by remembering all the good things one has experienced.
  • One should fill one's heart with fear of Allah and His awesome punishment, without complete despair of being forgiven. One should should remember one's own inevitable death and accountability to invoke these feelings.
  • One should fill one's heart with love to the Prophet (may Allah raise his rank), as we have been ordered, for he is the means by which we can hope for salvation through his teachings and intercession: "... they shall ask help from Adam, then from Musa, then from Muhammad - who will intercede..." (Al-Bukhaariyy).
  • One should fill one's heart with true monotheism. Monotheism is to believe that Allah is the only Creator, and that everything else is dependent upon Him, therefore only He deserves to be worshipped. He is eternal without a beginning and so are all His attributes, including His attributes of action - such as creating and shaping things. He does not resemble anything. He is the Creator of time, place, light and darkness and thus cannot be imagined.

Wednesday, January 05, 2005

Obligations and Common Sins One Should Know

Sins of human beings are invariably committed through forbidden acts or leaving obligatory acts. Acts can only be done by the body or mind. Therefore, for the purpose of convenience, one may split the topic of sins according to the parts of the body.

Obligations of the heart

  • It is an obligation to believe in Allah
  • It is an obligation to believe that Allah is one. That is, he doesn't have a partner, he doesn't have part (such as a limb or a son), and noone resembles Him.
  • One must also believe that Allah is NOT limited, bounded, flawed, incomplete or weak in any way.
  • It is an obligation to believe in what Allah has revealed to his Prophet Muhammad
  • It is an obligation to believe in Allah's Messenger
  • It is an obligation to believe in what was taught by the Messenger Muhammad
  • It is an obligation to do good deeds only in obedience to Allah and not for the praise of any creation
  • It is an obligation to be sorry for having committed sins
  • It is an obligation to rely on Allah. Since Allah is the only Creator, only Allah creates benefits and harm. Therefore, we need to rely on Allah
  • It is an obligation to stay away from sins, because we fear Allah
  • It is an obligation not to object to what Allah has willed to happen. Allah is not judged, because He does not have a creator, but He will judge us. Remember that even our sense of justice and injustice are mere creations of Allah in us.
  • It is an obligation to be respectful of the rules and practices of the Islamic religion and respected objects, such as the Quran or a mosque
  • It is blasphemy to respect other religions than Islam, since these religions are blasphemous inventions of mankind (such as Christianity and Judaism today - not the true teachings of Jesus and Moses, because they were muslims) and all their accountable followers are going to Hell forever.
  • It is an obligation to refrain from the use of what Allah has provided one with in disobedience to Him
  • It is an obligation to be patient in doing what Allah ordereds us to do
  • It is an obligation to be patient in avoiding what Allah forbids us to do
  • It is an obligation to be patient with the difficulties Allah gives us in our lives
  • It is an obligation to detest Shaytan
  • It is an obligation to detest all sins
  • It is an obligation to love Allah. It is blasphemy if someone hates Allah
  • It is an obligation to love and respect the original revealed books of the prophet, the true bible and the Quran
  • It is an obligation to love and respect the Prophet Muhammad , the Sahabah (those who met the Prophet Muhammad , became Muslim and died Muslim), and the Salihin (those who did all they were required to do and refrained from what they were forbidden to do).

Sins of the heart

  • Insincerity in worship (riyaa’) is sinful to commit, which is to do something good for the praise of another creation, or in order to get credit for good deeds AND be praised by another creation.
  • It is sinful to be proud of oneself and the good deeds one does, forgetting that Allah enabled him to do these good deeds.
  • It is sinful and blasphemous (kufr) to have doubt in Allah or His attributes.
  • It is sinful to continue to commit sins feeling confident of God's forgiveness.
  • It is sinful to believe that no matter what, Allah will punish you for the sins you have committed because they were so numerous.
  • It is sinful to reject the truth and look down on Muslims, because of one's social status or material possessions.
  • It is sinful to hide hostility towards a Muslim that pushes you into action. It is sinful not to hate this hostility.
  • It is sinful to be jealous or envious of something nice belonging to another Muslim, to the extent that you hope they will lose it and you get it. You must hate and reject this feeling in your heart.
  • It is sinful to persistently commit small sins without any intent of leaving them.
  • It is sinful to think that Allah will definitely punish you and will not give you mercy.
  • It is sinful to think badly of a Muslim without a sound reason.
  • It is sinful and kufr not to believe in predestination.
  • It is sinful to be happy or pleased with a sin, whether yours or someone else's.
  • It is sinful to covertly cause harm to a Muslim.
  • It is sinful to hate those who deserve to be loved.
  • It is sinful to be stingy with what Allah ordered Muslims to give: Zakat.
  • It is sinful to love this life and be tied to this life to the extent that you work with things that are sinful in order to gain the possessions of this life.
  • It is kufr to be disrespectful of those things Allah ordered us to respect.
  • It is kufr to be pleased with kufr.
  • It is kufr to believe it is acceptable to follow another religion than Islam
  • It is blasphemy to hate all the companions of the Prophet (may Allah raise his rank)
  • It is sinful not to believe there is wisdom in everything in the Islamic religion, whether we know the wisdom or not. We are required to follow Shari^ah (rules of the Islamic Religion), even if we do not know the wisdom.

Sins of the stomach and greed

  • It is sinful to eat something bought using Ar-riba. Ar-riba is generally known as interest on loans, but it is a very detailed subject which will be covered in business dealings.
  • It is sinful to impose taxes. The Khaliifah, however, may request money from the very rich in order to pay for something that is obligatory for the muslim community to have.
  • It is sinful to use a Muslim's property if unjustly taken by force. It is also sinful to unjustly use the property of non-muslims who are paying Jizyah and obeying the rules imposed upon them.
  • It is sinful to sell something with a defect that is known (to the seller) without pointing out the defect. This is sinful even if the person you are selling to was a kaafir who was a Muslim and left Islam (Murtadd/ apostate).
  • It is sinful to steal. There is a more detailed discussion of stealing in 'Sins of the hand.'
  • It is sinful to take anything in an Islamically incorrect way or benefit from such a thing.
  • It is sinful to drink alcohol, or to eat anything that gives the effect of drunkenness.
  • It is sinful to eat any Najis filth as defined in Islam (see articles on purification).
  • It is sinful to eat from an orphan's inheritance. An orphan is someone who has not reached puberty and his father is dead.
  • It is sinful to misuse a place donated (waqf) for a certain purpose. Misuse is to use it for a purpose other than the one it was donated for.
  • It is sinful to embarrass someone into giving you something.

Sins of the eyes

  • It is sinful for a man to look at a woman who is not his Mahram anywhere other than her face and hands. A Mahram is a person of the opposite sex you can never marry.
  • It is sinful for a woman to look at any man in the area between the navel and the knees, except her husband.
  • It is sinful for a man to look at the area between the navel and the knees of another man.
  • It is sinful for a woman to look at the area between the navel and the knees of another woman.
  • It is sinful to look at a Mahram with desire.
  • It is sinful for a man to look at a woman's face, other than his wife's, with desire.
  • It is sinful for a woman to look at a man, other than her husband, with desire.
  • It is sinful to remain completely naked in a room without a sound reason.
  • It is sinful to uncover the sexual organs without a sound reason.
  • It is sinful to look down on Muslims out of pride.
  • It is sinful to look into another Muslim's house without the owner's permission.
  • It is sinful to look at something a Muslim is hiding without permission.

Sins of the tongue

There is a Hadith which means that most of the people who go to Hell go there because of the sins they committed with their tongues (they are suffering because of what they said).
  • It is sinful to hurt a Muslim by telling him he should be grateful to you because you did something for him. It is worse to do this in front of people.
  • Backbiting: In the absence of a Muslim it is sinful to say something about him that he hates to have said about him, even if it is true. It is worse if it is a lie.
  • It is sinful to commit backbiting with a lie. In other words, to say something about a Muslim in his absence that he hates to be said and what is said is not true. This is called buhtaan.
  • It is sinful to transmit sayings between Muslims for the purpose of causing problems between them. This is known as Namiimah.
  • It is sinful to encourage fighting between Muslims or to encourage fighting between animals.
  • It is sinful to lie.
  • To tell a joke which contains a lie is sinful.
  • It is sinful to swear by God to a lie.
  • It is sinful to accuse someone of adultery, whether directly or indirectly.
  • It is blasphemy to curse all of the companions (those who met our beloved prophet Muhammad, became Muslim and died Muslim)
  • It is sinful to curse any single one of the companions of the Prophet (may allah raise his rank).
  • It is sinful for a person to beg (ask for free money or goods), unless he does not have enough food for the day, and is unable to earn the money needed for it.
  • It is sinful for a person to insist that another person gives him money or embarrass him into giving him money
  • It is sinful to vow (make it an obligation on himself -- nadhr) in front of witnesses in order to give something to someone and prevent relatives from inheriting something from him.
  • It is sinful for someone who owes money to another person to not tell anyone else about it. Also if someone left something with you, it is sinful for you to not tell anyone else about it
  • It is sinful to ask to become engaged to a girl who is already engaged and her engagement is accepted by the one responsible for her.
  • It is sinful to try and convince someone who has already agreed to buy something from someone else, but still has the right to call off the deal, to break this agreement and buy something similar from you instead.
  • It is sinful to give false witness, if asked to testify by an Islamic judge, whether the reason for lying was for money or friendship.
  • It is sinful to not pay back a debt one is able to pay, if the debt becomes due.
  • It is sinful to curse or insult a Muslim. It is also sinful to insult a Muslim's mother, even if she was not Muslim, if that insult hurts the Muslim.
  • It is sinful to make fun of a Muslim in satire. It is sinful to say anything that hurts a Muslim.
  • It is sinful to tell a lie about God or His Messenger, even if that lie was intended to encourage someone to do something good.
  • It is sinful to intentionally say a single letter of the Quran incorrectly while reading it out loud.
  • It is sinful to claim someone owes you something when he does not owe you anything.
  • It is sinful for a man to divorce his wife during the time when she has her period or post-partum bleeding.
  • It is sinful for a man to divorce his wife during a the time between a woman's periods in which he has had sexual intercourse with her.
  • It is sinful for a man to tell his wife, "You are forbidden to me like my sister or mother." This is a translation of a statement sometimes made in Arabic.
  • It is sinful to divorce one’s wife 3 times in one saying, but the divorce is valid.
  • It is sinful to divorce one’s wife three separate times between two periods of her’s.
  • It is sinful to claim that one is the son of a man who is not his father.
  • It is sinful for a person who was previously a slave to claim that someone other than his owner freed him.
  • It is sinful to give an Islamic judgment without knowledge. The Angels in the sky curse the one who does this.
  • It is sinful to teach something that is harmful without an Islamic reason.
  • It is sinful to give a non-Islamic judgment or ruling.
  • It is sinful to praise a dead person, as if he were still alive, by shouting.
  • It is sinful to mourn excessively loud. It is sinful to mourn by pulling one's hair.
  • It is sinful to laugh at a Muslim for something he did.
  • It is sinful not to answer the salaam of another Muslim that is directed to you.
  • It is sinful to refuse to testify to something you witnessed when asked to do so by someone who has the Islamic right to ask for a witness.
  • It is sinful for the one who is performed Al-Ihram for Hajj or ^Umrah or was fasting a day it is an obligation to fast, to kiss anyone with desire, including their spouse.
  • It is sinful to not teach necessary Islamic knowledge when someone is asking for it and you have learned it.
  • To tell someone to do something which is sinful is sinful.
  • To abstain from ordering someone to do an obligation when he must be ordered is sinful.
  • Every statement that encourages someone to commit a sin and every statement that discourages someone from doing what is an obligation is sinful.
  • Every statement that criticizes or insults the Quran, prescribed Islamic practices or Islamic traditions or a Prophet is blasphemy.
  • Divorce, marriage, vows and oaths are valid by uttering the required statements, regardless of one’s intention. Unless one knows this, one can end up committing serious sins.
  • If someone utters a statement that implies disbelief in, disdain of, or making fun of Allah, Islam, a prophet, a revealed book, an angel, hell, paradise, or prescibed Islamic beliefs, practices, rules or laws then he has committed blasphemy, unless he explicitly relates this saying to someone else. This is regardless of ones intention. One relates this to someone else by saying “it might be said”, “someone said”, “the Christians say” etc.

Obligations and duties of the tongue

  • All accountable people (those that are sane, have reached puberty and have heard the meaning of the creedal statement of Islam: “there is no god but God and Muhammad is His messenger”) must immediately become Muslims by uttering the creedal statement loud enough to hear themselves under normal circumstances.
  • If one thinks, but has some doubt, that one has committed blasphemy after becoming Muslim, then one must utter the creedal statement as a precaution. It is good to utter the creedal statement as a precaution at night before sleeping (unless one is absolutely sure that nothing blasphemous might have happened.)
  • It is a duty to say “Salla-Allahu-3alayhi-wa-sallam” at least once in a session or sitting where the Prophet’s name was mentioned.
  • It is an obligation to answer "wa^alaykum-us-salaam" when a muslim addresses one saying "as-salaamu ^alaykum".

Sins of the ears

  • It is sinful to listen to people speaking secretly if they do not want you to hear.
  • It is sinful to listen to wind and string instruments.
  • It is sinful to listen to backbiting. Backbiting is any saying about an absent Muslim that he hates to have said about him, even if it is true.
  • It is sinful to listen to Namiimah. Namiimah is any statement that is transmitted to cause problems between Muslims.
  • As with any sin, if someone can do something to stop it, it is an obligation for him to do something to stop it. If he cannot do something to stop it, it is an obligation for him to say something to stop it. If he cannot say something to stop it, it is an obligation for him to hate it in his heart and leave the place where it is happening. To hate it in the heart is the least thing he is required to do.

Sins of the hands

  • It is sinful for a seller to cheat the buyer by giving him less than the mentioned length, weight or volume of what he is selling.
  • It is sinful to steal the belongings of other Muslims or of Christians and Jews who obey the rules of Jizyah.
  • It is sinful to take taxes (see sins of the stomack for details).
  • It is sinful to commit Al-ghulul. When the Muslims fight the kuffaar, the money and goods that are captured (ghaniimah) need to be divided and given out according to the rules of the Islamic religion. To take anything before this division has been made is called Al-ghulul, except for those cases described in the books of Fiqh.
  • It is sinful to kill someone Allah has forbidden us to kill. It is sinful to kill a Muslim without a right (this includes suicide) or someone from a group of people the Khaliifah has a treaty with and the treaty contains a truce. It is also sinful to kill a Christian or Jew who abides by the rules of Jizyah, or one who is under the protection of a Muslim.
  • It is sinful to enter a non-muslim country as a guest, such as by visas or entry stamps, and then harm them or their property. Even if they throw verbal insults, one is not allowed to answer by physical force. One cannot use physical force unless they started - i.e. for self-defense.
  • It is sinful to hit a Muslim without the right to do so.
  • It is sinful to accept or give a bribe.
  • It is sinful to kill an animal by burning, unless it is causing problems (such as biting or killing) and burning is the only way of getting rid of it.
  • It is sinful to torture animals.
  • It is sinful to shoot a horse, even if its leg is broken.
  • It is sinful to play backgammon or any game played using a dice.
  • It is sinful to play with anything that relies on chance more than skill.
  • It is sinful to play any string or wind instrument, whether in solo or in a group. Excempted here is a trumpet in war.
  • It is sinful to intentionally touch, flesh to flesh, someone of the opposite sex that you are allowed to marry, excluding your marital partner. Even if it is without desire. This includes handshakes.
  • It is sinful to touch with desire someone of the same sex, or someone of the opposite sex, excluding your marital partner. Even if it is over the clothes.
  • It is sinful to draw a picture of something that has a spirit, even if it does not have a shadow.
  • It is sinful to prevent oneself or another from paying all or part of Zakat if it is an obligation to pay Zakat, what needs to be paid is present, and to whom Zakat may be paid is present.
  • It is sinful to withhold the pay of someone you have hired to do something after he has completed his service.
  • It is sinful not to save a Muslim who is going to die because of starvation, drowning, exposure, burning or the collapse of a building, if you are able.
  • It is sinful to write something that is sinful to say.
  • It is sinful to cheat or betray; the opposite of being trustworthy.

Sins of the sexual organs (genitals)

  • It is sinful to fornicate, practice adultery or homosexuality.
  • Adultery and sodomy are the greatest sins of the sexual organs.
  • It is sinful to put the head of the penis into the sexual organ of any animal. There is no specifically prescribed punishment for this (hadd).
  • It is sinful to drink urine. There is no specifically prescribed punishment for this (hadd).
  • It is sinful to have sex with a dead woman. There is no specifically prescribed punishment for this (hadd).
  • It is sinful to masturbate.
  • It is sinful to have sexual intercourse with a woman who is having menstrual or post-partum bleeding (see article "Prohibitions for the one who is ritually impure").
  • It is sinful to reveal the parts of your body that it is forbidden to reveal when there are someone present that can see.
  • It is sinful for a man to reveal the area between the navel and the knees in the presence of another man or woman other than his wife or unmarried female slave.
  • It is sinful to uncover one's genitals and anus for no reason, even if no one else is present.
  • It is sinful to face the Ka^bah or turn your backside toward it while urinating or defecating.
  • It is sinful to defecate orurinate on the grave of a Muslim.
  • It is sinful to urinate in a mosque, or in another respected place.
  • It is sinful not to circumcise one who has reached puberty, if they have not already been circumcised.

Sins of the Feet

Sins of the feet increase step by step. One may start walking and if he is going to commit a sin, each step he takes is a sin.
  • It is sinful to walk to commit a sin.
  • It is sinful for a wife to leave the house without her husband's permission or agreement. She may leave without his permission or agreement to do something that she is required to do, such as learn something that is an obligation for her to learn, provided that he does not teach her.
  • It is sinful to run away from those one is obligated by Allah to support. This includes not paying for one's wife, children and parents what one is required to provide for them.
  • It is sinful for a slave to run away from his owner.
  • It is sinful to enter a room or a house where someone of the opposite sex is alone, if this person is not a mahram. This sin is called khalwah. There must be a third person in the room that one would feel embarrased from. A mahram is someone that one could never marry – i.e. NOT brothers- and sisters- in law, because one could marry them if there was a divorce.
  • It is sinful to run away from one's creditor, if one is obligated to pay the loan immediately.
  • It is sinful to intentionally and purposely walk with a stature that is proud and boastful and shows vanity.
  • It is sinful to step over people causing them difficulty and discomfort.
  • It is sinful to walk between a person who is praying and the place he puts his head in prostration (sujuud).
  • It is sinful to put one's feet towards the Quran if the Quran is not higher than one's feet.
  • It is sinful to NOT go to do something that is an obligation. For example, not to go to the required Friday prayer or not to go to learn what one is required by Allah to know.

Common Sins of the Body in General are:

  • It is sinful to hurt one's parents in a way that if it had been done to another Muslim, it would have been a small sin. Hurting ones parents in this way is called ^uquuq and is a large sin.
  • It is sinful to cause great difficulties for one's parent. For example, if a mother asks her son or daughter for something and they reply in a manner that breaks her heart, it is from the large sins.
  • It is sinful to not visit one's Muslim relatives without a sound reason. Relatives include one's grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins from both sides of the family. That is, all your parent's relatives.
  • It is sinful for men to wear women's clothes and it is sinful for women to wear men's clothes. Unisex clothes are permitted.
  • It is sinful for men to imitate women and vice versa.
  • It is sinful to wear long clothes that extend below the ankle out of pride or to show off.
  • It is sinful for a man to dye his hands or feet with henna unless there is a need to do so.
  • It is sinful to interrupt doing something that is an obligation without an acceptable excuse.
  • It is sinful to imitate the behavior of a Muslim in order to make fun of him.
  • It is sinful to force a free Muslim to work without his agreement.
  • To be an enemy of a Muslim Saint (Waliyy), whether his karaamah is seen or not, is from the biggest sins of the body. This is like someone who was an enemy of a good Caliph.
  • It is sinful to help someone commit a sin. Examples are selling grapes to someone who wants to make wine from them, or selling weapons for a robbery.
  • It is sinful to spread something that is counterfeit by saying that it is real.
  • It is sinful to use containers or instruments made of gold or silver.
  • It is sinful to make tattoos.
  • It is sinful for two muslims to let more than three days pass, in which they met, without saying, "As-salaamu ^alaykum" to one another because of anger between them, unless there is an Islamic reason.
  • It is sinful to spend time with someone who is committing sins just to entertain them.
  • It is sinful for a male who has reached puberty as defined in Islam to wear something made of gold or silver or something made of more than 50% silk, with the exception of a silver ring. It is allowed for a man to wear a ring made of silver. It is better to wear it on the little finger with the crest turned toward the palm.
  • It is sinful for two members of the opposite sex who are not Mahram (someone that one could never marry – i.e. NOT brothers- and sisters- in law) for each other to stay in a room or house alone together. It is not sinful if there is another man or woman present. This sin is called khalwah.
  • It is sinful for a woman to travel alone without a Mahram.
  • It is sinful to do something that causes an obligation to become invalidly performed.
  • It is sinful to kill game by using something that kills by its weight.
  • It is sinful to kill animals for mere sport or target practice.
  • It is sinful to put something najis in a mosque, or to make a mosque dirty by spitting.
  • It is sinful to sit looking at sins if one does not have an acceptable excuse for remaining.
  • It is sinful for a woman whose husband has died, or has been irrevocably divorced, to leave the house during her ^iddah, without an acceptable excuse. Irrevocably divorced means that the husband does not have the option to take her back during her ^iddah.
  • It is sinful for someone who is required to perform Hajj and has the resources to perform Hajj not to intend to do Hajj. If he dies without making the intent to perform Hajj he has a sin.
  • It is sinful to borrow money from someone without an apparent way to pay him back except if the lender knows he does not have a way to pay him back.
  • It is sinful to pay money to do something sinful.
  • It is sinful and blasphemous not to completely respect the Quran or any other Islamic religious books or papers. It is also sinful not to treat with respect the written name of God even if it were written in books that contain blasphemy, such as the perverted bible.
  • It is sinful to change a boundary that distinguishes between yours and someone else's property or a public street.
  • It is sinful to close a public street without the right to do so.
  • It is sinful to use something you borrowed for something other than what you have been given permission to use it for.
  • It is sinful to use something for longer than you have permission to use it. It is also sinful to loan it to someone else.
  • It is sinful to prevent others from using public land and use it only for yourself. Examples are a public pasture used for feeding sheep, or a public forest used for collecting firewood, or public lands used for mining. It is sinful to prevent other Muslims from using these public lands.
  • It is sinful to use something lost and found without first being sure that the owner is no longer looking for it, or that it will be ruined if more time passes. Only poor people are allowed to use it or take it after that.
  • It is sinful to go to a party or dinner without the host’s permission, or to enter because one embarrassed the host to invite.
  • It is sinful to make people pay protection money. In other words, coerce someone to give you something in exchange for which you will not harm them.
  • It is sinful for a man not to spend equal time and money among his wives if he has more than one.
  • It is sinful for a woman to put on perfume and pass by men with the intent to attract them to commit a sin (such as looking with desire).
  • It is sinful to learn something that is harmful without an Islamically acceptable reason (e.g. magic).
  • It is sinful to discharge an unjust Khaliifah and it is sinful not to obey him in those things that are not sinful.
  • It is sinful to take the responsibility for something like other people's money, the guardianship of an orphan, the management of a mosque, or being a judge if you know you will not be able to do this correctly.
  • It is sinful to defend someone who has done something unjust from those who want to take what they have a right to from him.
  • It is sinful to frighten a Muslim.
  • It is sinful to block off a road in order to steal (highway robbery).
  • It is sinful not to do a Nadhr (vow) you made. A vow is to make something an obligation upon oneself.
  • It is sinful to fast two consecutive days without breaking your fast at all.
  • It is sinful to interrupt an optional Hajj or ^Umrah once you have started.
  • It is sinful for a man not to pray Al-Jumu^ah if it is an obligation for him, even if he prays Al-Thuhr.
  • It is sinful to postpone the obligated prayers past their proper time without an acceptable excuse.
  • It is sinful to leave the group prayer for the 5 obligatory prayers in a village, if not enough men are praying together.


When death is expected

  • If a person is dying, he is put on his right side facing the Qiblah as a sunnah, or flat on his back to make the exit of the soul easier.
  • Someone will repeat for him the creedal statement, but he is not ordered to say it (because of the tension he might refuse).
  • If he dies, then his mouth is closed by tying a cloth over the head and under the chin and his eyes are closed as well.

Washing the dead

  • The obligation is to wash the dead person at least once, but there are optional things that should be observed listed below.
  • Ablution is made for him as a sunnah, without rinsing the mouth or nose.
  • He is put on a bed so that the water will flow off.
  • A cloth is put to cover his private parts alone, and his clothes are removed.
  • His bed is perfumed with incense an odd number of times (3, 5 or 7).
  • Water is boiled with sidr or ushnaan (plants boiled with water to give it greater cleansing effect.) If they are not found, then pure water is used.
  • His head and beard is washed with khatmi (another plant) if available.
  • He is put on his left side and washed with sidr water until it is seen that water has reached under him on the bed.
  • He is put on his right side and washed with sidr water until it is seen that water has reached under him on the bed.
  • He is sat up leaning against the one washing, who lightly squeezes his stomach. This is so that the funeral clothes won't later become filthy.
  • If something comes out, it is washed away, but neither the full wash (ghusl) nor the ablution is repeated.
  • After this he is put on the right side and washed a 3rd time.
  • After this he is dried by a cloth and perfumed before shrouding.
  • Some perfume is put on the dead's head and beard - but not what is exclusive for women if the dead is a man.
  • Neither his hair nor his beard is combed
  • His nails and hair are not cut.

Shrouding the dead

  • The sunnah is to put the man in 3 shrouds: one to the neck (shirt), one from the top of the head to the end of the toes (izaar), one beyond the head and feet (wrap). In that order.
  • It is allowed to shroud a man in only 2 shrouds; izaar and wrap; Abu Bakr ordered to be shrouded in this way.
  • For the man it is disliked to use only one shroud, except in necessity.
  • If there is fear that the shroud might fall off, then it is tied with a cloth to prevent that.
  • The woman is shrouded in 5 as a sunnah: shirt, headcover, izaar, wrap and chest-cover (in that order).
  • It is allowed to use only three for her; izaar, wrap and headcover, but less than that is disliked.
  • The woman is first put in her shirt, and then her hair is braided into two braids and placed over her shirt on her chest. After that her head-cover is put on.
  • All the shrouds (for men and women) are perfumed by incense an odd number of times (3 times) before use.
  • After this the prayer is performed.

The Prayer for the dead

  • This prayer is an obligation for the community (fard kifaayah) and its pillars (conditions for valid performance) are: supplication, standing and proscription.
  • Its prerequisites are that the dead is a Muslim, has been washed and is placed in front of those praying.
  • The sultan is the preferred leader, then the judge, then the local imam, then the guardian is preferred (but unlike in a woman's marriage the father is first), then the sons according to age. If there is no guardian, then the husband (in the case of a woman) leads, and if there is none, the neighbor.
  • If someone lower in priority than the guardian leads, then the guardian repeats the prayer later if he wishes.
  • If the guardian prayed, or those higher than him in priority, then the funeral prayer may not be repeated.
  • If the dead one was buried without having been prayed for, then the prayer is performed by the grave, if it is before the body starts to disintegrate (according to what one thinks is most likely the case.)
  • The prayer consists of: proscription with raising the hands, the thanaa' (or praising Allah saying "al-hamdu lillaah" and the like), a takbiirah (without lifting the hands) followed by praising the Prophet (saying sallallaahu 3alayhi wa sallam and the like, but it is best to do it like in prayer after tashahhud), another takbiirah followed by supplication for the after life of oneself, the dead, ones muslim parents and the muslims in general. It is better to say supplications mentioned in hadit. After this one makes the fourth takbiirah and then the salaam.
  • If the leader makes a fifth takbiirah, then the follower does not follow him in this.
  • The supplication for the dead (after the third takbiirah) consists of asking for forgiveness for the dead one.
  • One does not ask forgiveness for a child (since the child is not accountable). Instead one says:

اللّهمّ اجْعَلْه لَنا فَرَطاً ، واجْعَلْه لَنا أَجْراً وَذُخْراً ، واجْعَلْه لَنا شافِعاً مُشفَّعاً

"Allahumma-j3alhu lanaa faraTan, wa-j3alhu lanaa Ajran wa dhukhran, wa-j3alhu lanaa shaafi3an mushaffa3an"
  • If one is late, then one does not make a takbiirah until the leader makes one after one is present.
  • If the leader has made 4 takbiirahs before the follower's presence, then he does not enter the prayer, even if the leader didn't make the salaam yet.
  • If someone was present and did not make the takbiirah immediately with the leader, then he does not wait for him to make another takbiirah.
  • The one who is praying for a dead man or woman faces the body's chest, since this is the place of the heart where the light the belief of Islam is.
  • One must stand for the funeral prayer - unless there is an excuse.
  • It is allowed for the guardian to permit others to lead the prayer.
  • It is allowed to announce the prayer, i.e. to send the word around to get people to attend the funeral prayer.
  • The funeral prayer should not be performed inside the masjid.

Funeral for Children

  • If there are lifesigns (sound or movement) from a newborn before its death (but after most of him/her has come out of the mother), then it is named, washed and prayed for.
  • If the newborn gave no lifesigns (after most of him had come out and he had some visible bodyparts), then he is washed and wrapped in a cloth and buried in respect of his humanity, but he is neither prayed for nor named. He does not inherit, unlike the case where he is named.
  • If a child was captured from the non-muslims together with its parents and then died, then it is not prayed for since he is attached to them. This is unless he declares his Islam when old enough to believe the basics of the belief.
  • If one of the child's parents became a Muslim, then he is also prayed for, because he follows the best of them in terms of religion.
  • If the child was captured alone, then he is prayed for, because he is now attached to the abode of Islam (Islamic land), just like in the case of an abandoned child found in a Muslim country.
  • If a non-Muslim died and he has a Muslim guardian, then he is washed, shrouded and buried, but without any observation of the sunnahs.

Carrying the dead

  • When they carry the dead on his platform/ open chest, they hold it in its four corners.
  • They walk with him quickly without jogging (so that the dead will not be thrown around in the box).
  • When they reach the grave, it is disliked to sit before he has been put down from the necks of those carrying. This is because help may be needed and standing makes one ready to do so.
  • The manner of carrying is to put the casket on your right shoulder first in front (which is also the right side of the dead by his head since he is on his back), then go behind and put him on the right shoulder, then go up front to the right of the casket (the left of the dead by his head) and place him on your left shoulder and finally go behind to the right and put him on the left shoulder. This way is to give preference to the right hand side of the dead and the carriers, (and to keep behind the casket). (Each person makes ten steps on each corner for a total of 40.) This is all in the case of many available carriers.
  • Those who are not carrying follow behind, not in front or to the sides, and recite or make remembrance silently.

The burial

  • The grave is dug and side-slotted (in the side of the grave towards the Qiblah (the prayer direction)). In soft earth one makes a wide cleft straight down, and then a narrower one to place the dead in the middle.
  • The dead one is placed on the side of the Qiblah of the grave (so that the one taking him down will be facing the Qiblah).
  • The undertaker says while putting him in the slide slot: "bismillaah wa 3alaa millati-rasuulillaahi" and he is put on his right side facing the Qiblah.
  • The grave of the woman is covered until the bricks have been placed on the slot, but this is not done for men.
  • The knots are then untied since one is now safe from it falling off, and (unburned) clay-bricks are placed to close the side-slot.
  • It is disliked to use building bricks or wood, because these are for solidifying buildings, and the grave is a place of tribulations.
  • After that the grave is filled and given a slightly elevated top from earth. Those who have seen the Prophet's grave (may Allah raise his rank) bore witness that his grave is shaped in this way.

The Case of the Martyr

The martyr (i.e. the complete martyr that has special funeral treatment) is the muslim that was killed by non-muslims, or was found on the battlefield with a sign of having been killed, or was killed injustly by muslims in a way that does not obligate payment of diyah (i.e. it was on purpose, not by mistake or by something that does not cut). This martyr is shrouded and prayed for, but not washed, because he died in the manner of the martyrs of Uhud. The Prophet (may Allah raise his rank) said about them that they were to be wrapped with their injuries and blood.
  • Any muslim that was killed by iron injustly and he is ritually pure (Taahir), has reached puberty, and there is no financial damages to be paid for his loss, is a martyr like those of Uhud.
  • The meaning of sign of having been killed is external or internal injury, because this is the indication of having been killed. Internal injuries are detected by blood exiting from an irregular place, such as the eye or ear.
  • Al-Shaafi3iy disagrees with us with regard to the prayer, and says that the sword removes all sins, so the martyr does not need intercession. The answer is that the prayer is to show the dignity of the dead, and the martyr has first priority in this. Moreover, the person free of sins, is still in need of supplication, like a prophet or a child.
  • The one that was killed by any instrument (even what does not cut) by the non-muslims, or rebels (against the khaliifah), or highway robbers is not washed, because not all the martyrs of Uhud were willed by swords.
  • If someone who is in need of greater ritual purity (ghusl) died as a martyr, then washing is required. Accordingly, the woman in menstruation or post-partum bleeding, or after it has stopped before washing, is washed.
  • The martyred child is also washed according to Abu Hanifah. He says that the sword removed the need for washing adults since it removes sins, and a child has no sins, so he does not fall under the meaning of the martyrs of Uhud.
  • Blood is not washed off the martyr, and his clothes are not removed. However, what does not have the meaning of shrouding is removed, such as padding, fur, hats, weapons, socks or shoes. (However, pants are kept on. In addition, he is not stripped naked, and padding and fur is kept on if nothing else is available.)
  • Shrouding is added or removed as needed in order to do the sunnah number of shrouds.

The Deadly Wounded in Battle

The one who was deadly wounded in battle and does not die immediately (hereby refered to as deadly wounded) is washed, because his attribute of martyrdom had someting following it, namely some lifespan after it. This way the trace of injustice was weakened, so he does not take the meaining of the martyrs of Uhud. The one considered to have been deadly wounded so that this trace was weakened is the one who ate, drank, slept, took medicine or was tranported from the battlefield alive, because he engaged in the matters and benefits of this life. On the other hand, the martyrs of Uhud died thirsty while the water was offered them, and they did not accept in fear of losing martyrdom.
  • If the wounded was removed from the place he fell so that he wouldn't be trampled, and died after that, then he is a martyr, because he did not get any rest or pleasure out of that. However, if he was put in a tent or the like, then he is considered deadly wounded, not a plain martyr in the meaning of Uhud.
  • If the wounded remained alive the entire time of a prayer, while conscious and rational, then he is a deadly wounded person (and is washed). This is because this prayer became a debt that must be made up, and this is a judgement for the living.
  • If the wounded made a testament regarding things of the afterlife, then he is also a deadly wounded person according to Abu Yusuf, because this is a business of this life. However, Muhammad said this is not so, because such a testament is a matter of the dead, and he is therefore a martyr.

Murder victims and those punished by death

  • The person found dead in a town is washed, because oaths and diyah (bloodmoney) is due, so the trace of injustice is lessened. The exception is if is known that he was killed by something sharp injustly (so there is no diyah), because the duty here is capital punishment for the killer or punishment in the hereafter.
  • The one who was killed in prescribed physical punishment is washed and prayed for. This is because he expended himself to settle the right of others upon him, whereas the martyrs of Uhud expended themselves for the sake of Allah only.
  • Highway robbers or rebels against the Khaliifah that were killed are not prayed for. This is because Ali did not pray for the dead among the rebels against him.

Prayer by, in or on top of the Kaabah

Prayer in the Kaabah

  • To pray inside the Kaabah is allowed both for obligatory and optional prayers.
  • If the leader prayed inside it with a group, unless the follower put his back to the front of the leader, because he is in front of the leader.

Prayer on the roof of the Kaabah

  • The one who prays on the roof of the Kaabah has a valid prayer, because the Kaabah is actually the place itself and the air above it up to the sky, not the building
  • However, it is disliked to pray on the roof of the Kaabah, because it is not respectful to it.

Prayer around the Kaabah

If the leader prayed in the masjid of Mekkah (the Masjid-ul-Haraam), and the people stood around the Kaabah and joined him in prayer, then their prayers are correct if they are closer to the Kaabah than he is, unless they are on his side of the building. This is because being in front or back is only realized from the same side.

Prayer in Fear

  • If people are facing the enemy in battle (or wild beasts or the danger of drowning or fire,) then the leader makes two groups for the prayer: one facing the enemy and one behind that group.
  • He first prays one subset with the group behind.
  • The moment he lifts his head from the second prostration, the first group goes to face the enemy while the second come to pray.
  • The leader leads the second group in his second subset, and sits for tashahhud and says the salaam. At that point the second group does not make salaam, but goes to face the enemy again and the other comes back.
  • The first group comes back again and they pray their second subset. They pray as singles without reciting -- because they were with the leader from the beginning. They sit for tashahhud and the salaam to end their prayer.
  • The first group goes back again to face the enemy, while the second comes back to pray their second subset with reciting - because they were preceded by a subset. They sit for tashahhud and the salaam to end their prayer.
  • If the leader is a resident, then he prays a pair of subsets with the first group and a pair with the second. If it is Maghrib he prays a pair with the first and a single subset with the second group.
  • If the fear and danger is very strong, then everyone prays single, hinting at bows and prostrations in any direction they are able.
  • In the middle of fighting activity one does not pray, but postpones the prayer.

Prayer of Asking For Water (istisqaa’)

  • Asking of rain (istisqaa') consists of supplication (du3aa') and asking for forgiveness.
  • There is no sunnah group prayer when asking for rain, but one may pray in group or single if one wishes.
  • If one wishes to pray, then it is done as in Eid, outside the masjid with loud reciting and a speech at the end.
  • The leader faces the Qiblah while supplicating, and turns his coat if he wishes.
  • The non-muslims that live in muslim countries do not join the muslims in asking for water, because the purpose is to ask for the descent of mercy, and they attract the descent of damnation.

The Eclipse Prayers

The Prayer of the Solar Eclipse

If the sun eclipses, then the leader prays with the group two subsets in optional prayer fashion (there is no call to prayer or speech, and there is only one bow in each subset. (Al-Shaafi3iy said: there are 2 bows)
  • The leader of the prayer should be the leader of their Friday Prayers, and if he doesn't show up, then people should pray single to avoid problems.
  • The leader recites lengthily and with silence according to Abu Hanifah.
  • Reciting lengthily in the prayer is a preference, but he may shorten it if he wants to do so. The sunnah is to occupy the entire time with prayer and supplication, so if one of the two is short in time, then the other is lengthened.
  • One supplicates after this prayer until the sun appears since this is what the Prophet (may Allah raise his rank) advised.
  • There is no speech with any of the eclipse prayers.

The Prayer of the Lunar Eclipse

There is no group prayer if a lunar eclipse occurs. Instead, everybody plays single (as a sunnah).

The Eid Prayer

The Eid Prayer is a duty for those who must pray Friday Prayer (not travelers, women, the sick, slaves or the blind).

It is a virtue before the prayer on the Eid of Fitr (the Eid after Ramadan) to:

  • eat,
  • take a complete shower (full ghusl),
  • use the siwaak,
  • put perfume before going to the prayer,
  • wear one's best clothing,
  • pay the Sadaqah of Fitr before prayer.
After this one heads for the prayer, saying AllahuAkbar silently and repetitively.

It is a virtue before the prayer on the Eid of ADHaa (the Eid after Hajj) to:

  • postpone eating until after prayer, and eat after prayer from ones own slaughtered meat,
  • take a complete shower (full ghusl),
  • use the siwaak,
  • put perfume before going to the prayer,
  • wear one's best clothing.
After this one heads for the prayer, saying AllahuAkbar loudly and repetitively.

The rules of the two Eid Prayers

  • When prayer becomes allowed by the sun rising high enough, then the Eid prayer time starts and its time lasts until the sun is in its zenith. It ends at the zenith.
  • There is no optional prayer before or after the Eid prayer where it is being held; one goes home if one wishes to pray after it.
  • The way that some people imitate those in Arafaat is invalid, i.e. getting together on the day of Arafaat in special places in order to imitate the pilgrims in Arafaat. This is because staying in Arafaat is a special form of worship in a special place, so it is not a worship in other places, just like all the rites of the pilgrimage.
  • There is no call to prayer for the Eid prayer.

The leader prays two subsets with the group for Eid as follows:

  • After the takbiirah (saying Allahu’Akbar) of the proscription he adds three more (with lifting the hands in all of them). According to Al-Shaafi3iyy the takbiirahs are 7.
  • After that he reads the FatiHa and a suurah and then he makes the takbiirah for bowing.
  • In the second subset he prays normally, but adds three takbiirahs before the takbiirah of bowing. According to Al-Shaafi3iyy the extra takbiirahs are 5 in this subset and are made at the beginning of it.
  • One lifts the hands in the extra takbiirahs of the two Eid prayers. However, one does not raise them when saying "Allahu'akbar" for bowing (rukuu3).

Two speeches are held after the prayer:

  • In the speeches the rules pertaining to the zakat of fitr (the Eid at the end of Ramadan) are taught.
  • In the speeches after the Eid-al-ADHa the rules pertaining to slaughtering and the takbiirahs of tashriiq are taught.

Making up the Eid of Fitr Prayer:

  • The one who missed any Eid prayer with the leader, does not make it up as a single.
  • If the hilaal of shawaal was not visible, and then some bore witness of seeing it after the sun's zenith, then Eid is prayed the next day, because it was postponed for a valid reason.
  • If the Eid of fitr prayer was not made on the second day, then it is not prayed after that.
  • If the Eid of ADhHaa prayer is not performed on the day of Eid, then it is prayed the next day or the day after that, but after that it is not prayed. This is because the prayer time is the time of slaughter, so it is bound by the days the latter is performed. However, one has done something bad if one postpones it for no valid excuse.

The Takbiirahs of tashriiq (a duty):

  • The takbiirahs of tashriiq are to say one time: "Allahu'akbar, Allahu'akbar, laa'ilaaha'illallaah, wallahu'akbar, Allahu'akbar, wa lillaahilHamd."
  • These takbiirahs are started after Fajr Prayer on the day of Arafaat and end after Asr on the last day of tashriiq (23 prayers over 5 days).

These takbiirahs are made immediately after the 5 obligatory prayers by:

  1. Residents of cities (not travelers or villagers of a tiny village) in group prayers that are not disliked (not groups with only women.)
  2. Women and travelers praying behind a male that is a resident. This is because they are followers of the leader.
    • Some scholars say: they are made by anyone, even singles and travelers.
    • The follower does not leave these takbiirahs, even if the leader does.

The Friday Prayer

Prerequisites of Friday Prayer

  1. It must be in a town where the people are so many that the largest masjid will not hold all of them.
  2. It must be performed by the ruler (with not ruler above him), or someone he has appointed (i.e. the governors, judges or preachers.)
  3. The time is the time of Thuhr prayer; not before it and not after. If the time of Thuhr finishes during the Friday Prayer, then it becomes invalid. Those that were in it must pray Thuhr from the beginning, because they are two different prayers.
  4. Another prerequisite is the speech. This speech must be before the prayer and after the time of prayer has entered.
    • It is a ascertained merit (sunnah) to hold two speeches separated by a brief sitting of the leader.
    • Ritual purity and standing during the speech are also ascertained merits for the speaker.
    • If the speech was held by someone sitting and without ritual purity, it is still valid. However, it is disliked, because it breaks with the inherited tradition, and because it will lead to a separation between the speech and the prayer.
    • If the speaker only praised Allah, it would be enough for the speech to be valid according to Abu Hanifah.
  5. There must be 3 people plus the leader present according to Abu Hanifah, and 2 plus the leader according to the other two.
  6. The group must remain until the leader has prostrated once.
    • If the people took off before the leader has bowed and prostrated in the first subset, so that no adult accountable men remained, then he must pray Thuhr from the beginning according to Abu Hanifah.

The obligation of performing Friday Prayer

  • The Friday Prayer is not obligatory upon travelers, women, the sick, slaves or the blind. It is enough for them to pray Thuhr.
  • If those who are excused from the Friday Prayer attend and pray with the group, then they do not need to pray Thuhr.
  • It is valid for the traveler, the slave and the sick to lead the Friday Prayer, but not women or children.
  • The one who prayed Thuhr in his house on Friday before the prayer of the leader, without an excuse, has done something disliked but his prayer is valid.
  • If after praying Thuhr it occurs to him to attend the Friday Prayer, and headed towards it while the leader is already in prayer, then his Thuhr is invalidated by merely moving towards it.
  • It is disliked for those who are excused from Friday Prayer to pray Thuhr in a group in a town where there is Friday Prayer.

Performance of the Friday Prayer

  1. When the (first) call for prayer occurs for the Friday Prayer, all those that are not excused must leave all buying and selling and head for the prayer.
    • This is provided that the prayer time has entered.
    • It is haram to buy and sell during Friday Prayer.
  2. When the leader of the prayer exits for the Friday Prayer in the masjid, one must leave all prayers and talk until he finishes his speeches.
  3. When the leader climbs upon the minbar, the (second) call for prayer is made in front of it.
  4. After the speeches the Friday Prayer of 2 subsets are performed.

Catching the Friday Prayer

  • The one who entered behind the leader in the Friday Prayer, prays with him whatever remains, and completes the subsets he missed after the leader finishes. This is even so if he entered right before the salaam.

Tuesday, January 04, 2005

The prayer of the traveler

The distance that makes one a traveler

  • The travelling by which rules change (fasting Ramadan, prayer subset numbers, permissability of female travel, duty of Friday and Eid prayers, duty of slaughtering in Eid, the period for which one may wipe the khuff) is the one for which one intends (i.e. starts travelling wanting) to travel the distance of 3 complete days and nights at the average pace of a person on foot or riding a camel. Today this is estimated by about 98 kilometers.
  • Travel by sea is not estimated according to travel by land. Instead, one estimates according to normal conditions of travel by sea.
  • The sinful and the obedient (to Allah) in his traveling is the same with regards to its license.

The description of the travelers prayer

  • The obligatory prayers of the traveller with 4 subsets are reduced to 2 subsets ONLY (not optional).
  • If a traveller prayed 4 subsets and sat (the time it takes to say the tashahhud) after the first pair, then the first pair become the obligatory prayer and the second an optional prayer. However, he has done something bad by delaying the salaam of the obligatory prayer.
  • If a traveller prayed 4 subsets and did not sit (the time it takes to say the tashahhud) after the first pair, then his obligatory prayer is invalid. This is because he effectively entered an optional prayer before he completed the obligation.
  • The one who missed a prayer while traveling, and makes it up after settling, prays it by 2 subsets. The one who missed a prayer while settled, and makes it up while traveling, prays in 4 subsets.

Group prayer with travelers

  • If a traveller entered as a follower behind a settled person in a 4 subset prayer, in the time of that prayer, then he competes 4 subsets.
  • If a traveller entered (note that it is the time of entry that matters) behind a settled person in a 4 subset prayer, after the time of the prayer has expired, then his prayer is invalid. This is because it is now making up a prayer for him and he is supposed to make up 2 subsets, not 4.
  • If a traveller leads settlers, then he says the salaam after 2 subsets while the others complete 4. They complete the 3rd and 4th subsets without reciting, but must recite in any subsets that they did not catch.
  • It is a virtue for the leader who is a traveller to say "complete your prayers, because we are travellers!" after having said the salaam.

Start- and end-points of being a traveler

  • If the traveller went beyond the buildings of his place of settlement, then he starts praying 2 subsets.
  • After exiting the town, he remains a traveller until he intends to settle in a town or village for 15 days or more. If he intended less, he will remain a traveller.
  • Settlement in the middle of the desert is not valid for ending the state of being a traveller.
  • If the traveller entered a town with the firm intention of leaving "tomorrow or after tomorrow", and never intended to stay for 15 days, then he shortens his prayer, even if years pass by.
  • If the muslim troops entered the warzone (non-muslim land) and intended to settle, they still shorten their prayer, even if they besieged a town or a fortress. This is because they are in the state between victory thus settlement and defeat thus retreat, so their place is not a place for settlement yet. The same is the case if they besieged (muslim) rebels against the Khaliifah in muslim lands outside the cities or at sea.
  • The intention of settlment for herders living in tents is valid, and is not invalidated merely by moving from one pasture to another.
  • If the traveller enters his home town, then he must complete all 4 subsets, even if he did not intend to stay.
  • Whoever had a hometown but emigrated to another town, remains a traveller if he should travel through his original hometown. This is provided that it is not also his hometown. The basic rule is that one's original hometown is invalidated as a "hometown" by taking another place as ones home, but not by mere travelling or settling in another town.
  • The place of settling is invalidated by settling somewhere else (because the new place is its equal) or by travelling (because it is contradictory to settling) or by reaching one's hometown.
  • If the traveller intended to settle in "Makkah and Mina" for 15 days, then he keeps shortening his prayer. Exempted here is if he intended to stay all nights in one of them, because settlement has to do with were you stay at night, so in this case he becomes a settler by entering the place he intends to stay at night.

The Prostration of Recital

  • There are 14 places for the prostration of recital in the Quran. These were noted in the mushaf of Uthman.
  • Note: The second prostration in surat-ul-Hajj is for the prayer (not of recital - in disagreement with Shafi3iy), whereas there IS a prostration in suurah "Saad" (in disagreement with Shafi3iy).
  • Note: The place for prostrating in suurah "Ha-Mim" is after aaya number 38 (not 37 as some scolars say). This is the saying of Omar, and is precautionary since it is allowed to postpone the prostration, but not the other way around.
  • These prostrations are all a duty upon both the recitor and the listener, even if the latter did not intend to listen.
  • If the leader of the prayer recited an aayah of prostration, then he prostrates and so does the followers.
  • If the follower recites an aayah of prostration, then neither he nor the leader should prostrate during the prayer or after it. However, if someone outside the prayer heard it, then this outsider must prostrate.
  • If those in a group prayer heard someone outside their prayer recite an aayah of prostration, then they do not prostrate during the prayer. However, they do prostrate it after the prayer.
  • If they did prostrate in the prayer for the reciting done outside their prayer, then this is invalid and they must repeat it after the prayer, but not the prayer itself.
  • If the leader of a prayer recited an aayah of prostration and someone outside the prayer heard it, but entered into the prayer after the leader had prostrated for the recital, then this man does not have to prostrate for it. This is provided that he entered while the leader was still in the same subset (rak^ah). If he enters the prayer before the leader prostrates, then he must prostrate, because he must do so even if he did not hear the reciting. However, if he did not enter the prayer, or did not catch the subset, then he must prostrate it.
  • Any prostration of recital that became a duty during the reciting of a particular prayer and was not performed in it, cannot be caught up afterwards. This is because it was a part of the actions of prayer (imposed by the recital of the prayer), and therefore has extra virtues, so it cannot be performed by a prostration that is deficient of these virtues.
  • The prostration of the prayer itself does not stand for the prostration of recital, unless one prostrates within three aayahs after it became a duty (with the intention to fulfill this duty in addition to the obligation of the prayer itself).
  • If someone recited an aayah of prostration while outside prayer and before having prostrated entered a prayer (without interruption by engaging in something unrelated - like chatting, or going to another corner of the room) in which he recited the same aayah and prostrated, then this prostration fulfills the duty of both recitings. However, if he recited it and prostrated for it and then prayed and recited it again in the prayer, then he must prostrate for this second reciting.
  • If someone repeated the same Aayah of prostration several times in the same session, then one prostration is enough for all of them.
  • If someone recited an Aayah of prostration once, prostrated, left the place of sitting, and subsequently came back and recited it again, then he needs to prostrate again. If he didn't prostrate the first time, then he needs to prostrate twice.
  • If the sitting of the listener changed, but not that of the recitor, then the duty of prostrating for the same aayah is renewed for the listener only.
  • If the sitting of the recitor changed, but not that of the listener, then the duty is renewed for the reciter only.
  • The one who wants to perform the prostration of recital says "Allahu Akbar" without lifting the hands, then he prostrates, then he says "Allahu Akbar" again and raises his head from the ground. There is no tashahhud or salaam.
  • To read a suurah, in prayer or otherwise, and leave out the aayah of prostration in it is disliked. This is because it looks like one is avoiding it out of pride. To read an aayah of prostration, and leave the rest of the suurah is acceptable.

Praying While Sick

  • If someone was too weak to be able to stand, then he performs bowings and prostrations while sitting. This is because obedience to Allah is according to ability.
  • If he is unable to sit, then he lies on his back, supported by a pillow to incline his upper body, and stretches his legs in the direction of the prayer, hinting at bows and prostrations.
  • If someone that is unable to sit lied down on his side facing his chest in the direction of the prayer while hinting, then his prayer is valid also. However, sitting with ones legs stretched is better, because the hints point in the prayer direction.
  • If someone was not able to hint by his head, then he delays the prayer and does not hint by his eyes, heart or eyebrows.
  • If someone is able to stand, but not to perform bowing and prostration, then he does not have to stand, but sits and hints at the movements. He may stand, but the best is to sit, because hinting while seated is closer to real prostration
  • If a healthy person performed some of his prayer standing but suddenly fell ill, then he completes while seated (prostrating or hinting as able), or lying on his back if necessary.
  • If someone praying seated, while performing complete bowings and prostrations due to illness, became well during the prayer, then he builds upon what has been done and performs the rest standing (i.e. he stands where it is required.)
  • If someone praying by hinting at bows and prostrations due to illness became well during it, then he must pray all over again.
  • If someone started praying optionally while standing but became weak, then it is acceptable for him to lean on a stick or wall, or to sit down. This is because this is an excuse.
  • If he started leaning during optional prayer without an excuse then this is disliked, because it is improper behavior.
  • If he sat (during an optional prayer - after having stood in the beginning) without an excuse, then it is disliked but valid.
  • If someone prays seated in a boat (while sailing) without being sick, then it is valid, but standing is better.
  • If the boat is tied to the shore, then one must pray on land if the boat is unstable; praying on the boat would be invalid.
  • The boat tied to an anchor in the middle of the sea takes the judgment of the boat sailing if there is a lot of movement. If it is stable, then one must stand.
  • The one who loses consciousness or sanity for 5 consecutive prayer times or less must make them up. If it was more, then he does not have to pray them.
  • The one who sleeps through prayers must make them up, no matter how many.

The Prostration of Inattentiveness (sujuud as-sahw)

These two extra prostrations at the end of prayer are a duty, because their role is to repair a defect that happened to the prayer during its performance, just like slaughtering during the pilgrimage if one has committed something prohibited.

Performing the prostration of inattentiveness

  1. Say the tashahhud
  2. Say the salam to both sides
  3. Prostrate twice for the inattentiveness that occurred
  4. Say the tashahhud
  5. The Salaat alaa-an-nabiyy
  6. Supplication (if you wish)
  7. Say the salam to both sides to end the prayer
These two prostrations are not repeatable, therefore they should be made after the first salam. However, it is valid to perform them before the salam and then end the prayer.

The basic causes for this duty

1. Postponing an obligation or a duty inattentively: The prostrations of inattentiveness are a duty if someone added an action in a prayer that does not belong to the prayer he is in, but it is of the kind of actions that are done in prayer. (E.g. prostrating 3 times in a subset or saying the salaatul-Ibrahmimiah after the first tashahhud)

2. Neglecting a duty, such as:
  • Reciting the FaatiHah (if one is the prayer leader or praying single)
  • Supplicating the qunuut of Witr prayer
  • Saying the tashahhud (both of them)
  • Sitting for the first tashahhud
  • The takbiiras of Eid prayer
  • Reciting more than 3 aayas of the Quran loudly when it should be silent
  • Reciting more than 3 aayas of the Quran silently when it should be loud

Prostrating for inattentiveness in a group prayer

  • If the leader prostrates for inattentiveness, then the follower must prostrate with him, but not if the leader did not prostrate.
  • If the follower made a mistake out of inattentiveness, then nobody prostrates for this.
  • It is valid to enter the prayer of a leader before he has said the salam after prostrating for inattentiveness.

Negligence in the first sitting for the tashahhud

  • The one who forgot the first sitting, but remembered while he was still closer to sitting (than standing), sits down and performs the tashahhud. The prostration of inattentiveness is not required in this case.
  • If he was closer to standing than sitting, then he does not return to sit, but must prostrate for this inattentiveness.

Negligence in the last sitting for the tashahhud

If someone omitted the last sitting and stood for a fifth subset, then:
  • He must return to sit unless he has prostrated once for this subset. He must perform the prostration of inattentiveness since he delayed an obligation.
  • If he prostrated once in this fifth subset, then his (and any follower’s) prayer is invalid as an obligation and has become an optional prayer.
If someone sat after the 4th subset and then stood for a fifth without saying the salaam first, then he returns to sit and say it as long as he has not prostrated in the fifth. His obligation is complete in either case. If he prostrated in the fifth, then a sixth subset is added so that the 2 extra subsets become an optional prayer. He must perform the prostration of inattentiveness at the end for leaving out the salaam.

3 special cases

  1. The person who prayed 2 optional subsets and was inattentive and prostrated for that in them, cannot build upon these 2 subsets if he wanted to add more subsets.
  2. The traveler who finished 2 subsets (while shortening) and prostrated for inattentiveness, but then intended to settle (to stay more than 15 days) before saying the salam: he must complete 4 subsets so as not to invalidate his entire prayer.
  3. The one who said the salaam intending to exit from the prayer, and still has prostrations of inattentiveness due, must still prostrate them.

Doubting the number of subsets prayed

If someone doubted whether he had prayed 3 or 4 subsets during prayer, then:
  • If this is the first time this happens, he must pray over again. One should exit from the prayer one is in by saying the salaam.
  • If this happens often, he goes by what he thinks is the most likely number of subsets prayed. If a more likely number of subsets does not occur to him, then he goes by the number he is sure of (i.e. the least number.) In the case of building upon the least number, the person should sit and perform the tashahhud at the end of every subset that he imagines might be the last. This is to avoid leaving out the obligation of the last sitting.

Catching up missed prayers or parts of group prayer

Catching part of the group prayer

  • The one who reached the group prayer while the leader was in the bowing position, then proscribed and remained standing until the leader stood up, has not caught this subset. He stands up and prays this subset and all others missed after the leader has completed his prayer.
  • If a follower bowed before the leader, then his bow was valid if the leader caught the follower in it, not otherwise. However, it is better to repeat the bow.

Catching Up Missed Obligatory Prayers

  • The correct sequence of missed prayers and the obligation of the current time is required, and leaving it invalidates the prayer, unless:
  • One fears that the time to pray the current obligation is running out
  • The missed prayers are more than 5
  • One forgot about the missed prayers until after the current time’s obligation

Making Up Missed Optional Prayers

  • The 2 optional subsets before Fajr are prayed after the group prayer has started, if one can catch the second subset with the leader, but outside the masjid. This is not for the optional subsets before other obligatory prayers.
  • If someone misses the Ascertained Merit (sunnah) before Fajr, then he does not pray it after Fajr unless he missed Fajr itself so he can pray it in combination with the missed Fajr.
  • Other ascertained sunnah prayers are caught up within their associated obligatory prayer's time, but not after.

Interrupting the prayer to join a group prayer

  • If someone completed his obligatory prayer alone, then he may join the group prayer afterwards as an optional prayer, but not after Fajr, Asr or Maghrib.
  • If he has not made the first prostration of the second subset of Fajr; he interrupts Fajr and joins the group.
  • If he had prostrated once in the 3rd subset of Thuhr, 2nd subset of Maghrib or Fajr then he completes the prayer.
  • If he was praying the sunnah mu'akkadah (ascertained merit) before Thuhr or the Friday Group Prayer, and then the group prayer or the speech started, then he interrupts after competing the first pair of subsets.

Witr Prayer

  • Witr's is a duty, has three consequtive subsets (no tasliim after the first sitting for tashahhud) with FatiHah and a suurah, and with a supplication (qunuut) before bowing in the 3rd subset.
  • When one wants to make the Witr Supplication, one raises the hands like in the proscription while saying "Allahu Akbar," then starts to supplicate silently.
  • There is no regularly prescribed qunut supplication (like the supplication of Witr) other than in Witr.
  • If there are calamities, such as war, one may make qunut supplication in other than Witr in the standing after the bow (rukuu^) in the last subset.
  • Followers remain silent if the leader of the prayer makes the qunuut supplication in Fajr.
  • Witr is prayed in group in Ramadan only, by the consensus of the muslims, and with loud reciting.

Optional Prayers

The optional prayers and their description

  • All subsets in optional prayer must have the FatiHah and a suurah recited in them because every pair of subset is like a separate prayer.
  • The number of subsets of optional prayers of the daytime are 2 or 4
  • During the night one may pray 2, 4, 6 or 8 subsets in one prayer.
  • The best number of subsets for optional prayers is 4.
  • The Merit (sunnah) prayers are: 2 subsets before Fajr, 4 in one prayer before Thuhr, 2 (or 4) after Thuhr, (2 or 4 before Asr), 2 after Maghrib, (2 or 4 before Eisha) and 2 (or 4) after Eisha. Those in brackets are not ascertained.
  • One does not leave the Merit prayers, unless time is running out for the obligatory prayer.
  • Duha is prayed by 4 subsets after the sun rises high, but before its zenith
  • The best place to pray optional prayers is in the house (except taraawiiH).
  • Ramadan’s TaraawiiH: 10 prayers of 2 subsets behind a leader, or alone at home, after the obligatory night prayer, with a resting period every 4 subsets.
  • A traveler outside the city prays optional prayers on the back of his animal in the direction it is facing, hinting at the prayer movements.
  • If someone started praying on the back of an animal, then descended and finished on the ground, then his prayer is correct, but not the other way around.
  • Optional prayers seated while able to stand are permitted. It is best to sit as in the tashahhud.
  • If someone started to pray an optional prayer standing, but later sat without an excuse, then this is valid.

The one who starts an optional prayer and then invalidates it must pray it later.

Since every pair of subset is like a separate prayer:

  • If someone was praying 4 subsets optionally, and invalidated the prayer after standing up for the 3rd subset, then he must pray 2 subsets later.
  • If one does not recite in a subset pair, then the proscription has been invalidated.
  • Reciting in only one subset of a pair of subsets invalidates that pair only.

Invalidators of Prayer

In prayer, the underlying cause of invalidation is a lot of activity that does not belong to the prayer:
  • Speaking in prayer, whether purposefully or forgetfully, invalidates it. An exception here is forgetfully saying the "assalam" saying during prayer.
  • If the leader of the prayer recited Qur'aan by reading from a book (not merely reading)
  • Entering another prayer by proscription (one has entered the other prayer)
  • If someone said "there is no god but God" intending it as an answer to someone else, but not if he intended by it to make someone aware that he was praying.
  • If someone helps in the reciting of someone other than the leader of the prayer he is in, then his prayer becomes invalid.
  • If someone helps his own leader remember in his reciting, it does not invalidate his prayer, unless the leader has already gone to another aayah. He should not hurry in this.
  • If someone sneezed, and someone who was praying said "raHimaka Allah" (bless you), then the latter's prayer is invalidated.
  • The one who clears his throat, and pronounces letters in doing so, invalidates his prayer unless he is excused by being unable to prevent it (i.e. naturally or to be able to recite), just like sneezing or belching.
  • If a person sighed, moaned or cried with letter-sounds in prayer, then it invalidates it unless it is because of remembering Paradise or Hell (not pain or adversity)
  • More than two consecutive movements
  • Killing scorpions or any type of snake during prayer is not harmful
  • The one who eats or drinks in prayer invalidates it, whether it was intentionally or not.
    • Exempted here is if you swallowed something that was already in your mouth before the prayer started and it was less that a chick-pea in size.
  • To answer a greeting during prayer invalidates it, if it is by the tongue or by shaking hands. It is disliked if it is done by giving a sign (such as a nod.)

Disliked acts related to prayer and the masjid

Disliked acts in the prayer

  • To count suuras or aayas of the Quran during prayer by the hand (not merely pressing the fingers into the body)For the leader of the prayer to stand (not just prostrate) in the arcade, or on a separate platform (or the followers being on a platform and the leader not).
  • To pray with a forbidden picture in front, over the head, to the side, behind, on the clothes or on the prayer rug.
    • To pray towards the back of a man sitting and having a conversation has no harm in it.
    • To pray with a copy of the Qur'aan or a sword hung up directly in front is not disliked.
    • If the head of a statue has been removed, then it is not considered a forbidden image.
    • It is not disliked to have a picture in the house on a pillow or a carpet on the floor, because it is stepped on.
    • The image of something that does not have a soul is not disliked (such as plants and trees).
  • It is disliked for the one in prayer to toy with his clothing, fingers, body or pebbles.
  • One may remove pebbles from the place of prostration by a single movement if it affects one's ability to perform it properly.
  • To place one's hands on the hips during prayer is disliked
  • Turning one's head in prayer is also disliked but turning one's eyes alone left and right during prayer is not
  • To sit on one's buttocks with the knees up in front during prayer is disliked
  • To put ones forearms on the ground in prostration is disliked
  • To sit cross-legged in prayer is disliked without an excuse
  • To lift and hold one's clothing while descending into prostration
  • For the man to have his hair collected in a ponytail or by pigment at the back.
  • To let one's clothes hang loosely from ones head and shoulders during prayer

Dislikes related to the masjid

  • Locking up the masjid is disliked, because it resembles prevention of prayer, unless one fears for the property in it outside the prayer times.
  • Ornamenting a masjid with gypsum, wood or gold paint has no sin in it, but it is not rewardable to do so. Some said it is if someone did it using his own money.
  • Intercourse, defecation, urination or having Greater Ritual Impurity above a public masjid is disliked, because its roof is like being inside it.

Passing in front of someone praying and using a sutrah

  • The one who passes between the praying person and the place he makes prostration has committed a sin -- unless there is a barrier between, such as a wall. It does not invalidate the prayer.
  • When praying in an open area, one should put a divider in front, about 70 cm high and wider than a finger.) One should stand close to the divider, and keep it a little to the left or right from the middle, so as not to pray directly towards it.
  • One may pray without the divider if one feels safe from anyone passing in front and one is not facing a road.
  • The divider in front of the leader works as a divider for all his followers.
  • The person praying prevents people from passing in front of him by either using the hand to stop them or by saying "subhaanallaah".

Entering a masjid in which the call for prayer had already been made

  • If the call has been made, then it is disliked to exit from the masjid until one has prayed. Exempted is the one who is part arranging the group prayer in another place.
  • If he had already prayed and it was the time of Eisha or Thuhr, then he may exit before the call to stand to pray starts, not after. For Fajr, Asr and Maghrib he exits regardless.